SECONDARY DIABETES

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This type of diabetes results from recognisable pathological process or secondary to or as a consequence of treatment of some other disordered condition. This type has very few numbers of diabetic patients. Secondary diabetes may stem from the following aetiological factors (or contributory causes):

i. Diabetes of pancreatic origin: As a result of inflammation of pancreas (pancreatitis) haemochromatosis and cancer thereof, pancreas releases impaired secretion of insulin, resulting in pancreatectomy (removal of pancreas by surgical means) which removal, in turn, leads to onset of diabetes due to total depletion in insulin release.

ii. Adrenaline Factor: Adrenaline by increasing the breakdown of liver glycogen and by suppressing secretion of insulin causes rise in concentration of blood glucose. Diabetic patients are more susceptible to tumours with high incidence which is uncommon in non-diabetics.

iii. Thyroid Hormone: Hypothyroidism (Excessive secretion of thyroid hormone) will aggravate diabetic state as is evidenced by impaired glucose tolerance in thyroid patients.

iv. Liver Problems: Hepatitis and cirrhosis of liver also cause impaired glucose tolerance and this help the diabetes to set in.

v. Gestational Diabetes: This is due to inherited tendency to develop hyperglycemia (diabetes) in pregnancy. It is happens that, during normal pregnancy period, there is an increased production of hormonal antagonists to insulin which demands an increased rate of release/secretion of Insulin. But a diseased pancreas often fails to meet this demand.

vi. Latrogenic Factors: Diabetes might be precipitated by use of certain therapies notably & primarily cortico-steroid therapy or/and use of thiazide diuretics.

vii. Insulin Antagonists: Due to abnormal concentrations hormones, antagonistic to the action of insulin in the blood circulation, may cause onset of diabetes.
viii. Growth Hormones: These hormones are capable of causing diabetes in about 30% of the cases where there is presence of acromegaly (Abnormal growth and enlargement of bones and soft parts of the face and extremities). Even this may occur to experimental animals.

ix. Adresocortical Hormones: Cortisol raises the concentration of glucose in the blood by inhabitation of glucose by the peripheral tissues. Trauma of physical injury and /or use of corticosteroids may also show impaired tolerance to carbohydrates, thus paving the way for onset of diabetes.

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