The foregoing information may be summed up, of course, with some additional points, in the following manner, which should always be taken note of.

About insulin
1. Available insulin, in the market, contain bovine, porcine or human insulin, which are obtained from pancreas of cattle and pigs respectively.
2. Insulin preparations are most usefully classified according to their duration of action, apart from their origin.
3. short-acting insulins include acid soluble and neutral soluble, and have duration of action approximately upto 8 hours, with a peak between 2 and 8 hours.
4. Intermediate and long-acting insulins contain Isophane Insulin (known as NPH) and insulins zinc suspensions which have an approximate action range from one to four hours, and can last upto 36 hours. In addition to the above, there are also stable pre-mixed preparations which contain fixed ratio of neutral soluble and isophane insulins which give a biphed action. The speed of onset of action will depend on the ratio in which soluble insulin is present in such preparations.

Uses: To treat diabetic cases which require to be treated with insulin.

1. Be careful if a switch over from bovine to porcine or from animal to human insulin is required, particularly with regard to dosage determination. Fully ensure that previous site of injections is changed and one site should not be used earlier than a month. Only one injection area should be used only once in a month.
2. throughout the period of pregnancy, a good and continuous control of insulin dependant patient must be ensured, otherwise the pregnant mother may pass on the risk of diabetic symptoms to her off-spring. At least, a risk-factor is greatly involved in an unmonitored diabetic case.
3. if corticosteroids and diuretics are to be given, in addition to insulin therapy, dose of insulin should be increased according to and depending on individual requirement in each case.


Animal Insulins: 1. Actraphane (Highly purified porcine netural insulin 30%
Isophane insulin 70%) Injection
2. Actrapid (Highly purified pork neutral insulin Injection) 40
Units per ml Inj.
3. Actrapid-MC (Highly purified monocomponent pork neutral
Insulin) 40 units available per ml. Injection.
Human Insulins: 1. Human Actraphane (Highly purified human insulin as 30%
Neutral soluble insulin and 70% Isophane Insulin) available in
40 units per ml.inj.
2. Human Actrapid (Highly purified human neutral insulin) 40
Units available and 100 units per ml. inj.
3. Human Monitored (Highly purified human insulin zinc
Suspension) available in 40 units available in and 100 units per
ml. inj.